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警用装备形成战斗力的探索与实践

来源:靖江市国润警用器材制造有限公司 点击次数:次

  战斗力,亦称作战能力。武装力量遂行作战任务的能力。作为警察,这种能力在对抗性执法中表现为制止违法犯罪行为的能力,平时表现为维护社会治安的威慑能力。战斗力是由人、装备两个基本要素构成的一个复杂的系统。警用装备是战斗力构成的物质基础,直接影响并反映了警察战斗力的高低。警用装备作为警察实施对抗性执法的工具,它自身是没有战斗力的。只有将一定的武器与一定的人有机结合,这些武器才能形成相应的战斗力。“警用装备形成战斗力的实质,即人与武器有机结合。警用装备形成战斗力过程,需要具备五个条件:一是作战理论是否及时创新;二是体制编制是否适时调整;三是教育训练是否扎实有效;四是管理保障是否科学配套;五是装备合理。其中任何一个条件出现问题,都将直接影响警用装备战斗力的形成、稳定和提高。”

  一、创新实战理论是警用装备形成战斗力的灵魂

  任何一种警用装备,只有在一定的执法实战理论指导下,通过一定的运用形式、战术手段,才能转化为现实的战斗力。同样的警用装备,依据不同的执法实战理论,与不同的战术相结合。会形成不同的战斗力,并因此导致不同的执法实战结果。

  新的警用装备列装后,必须探究与其相适应的实战理论和实战应用方法,才能形成应有的战斗力。所谓实战理论和实战运用方法,是指警察执法执勤力量为制止违法犯罪行为所采用的方式方法的总和。

  目前,全国公安机关对警用装备的实战应用研究严重落后于警用装备的发展。究其原因,主要是受政治因素的影响,实战理论严重滞后。例如:“打不还手,骂不还口”的执法规定,使民警产生带警用装备毫无用处的思想。既然带警用装备无用,又何必去深入探讨警用装备实战运用的方法?试问,一个不敢严格执法的警察,一个教条僵化到违法犯罪分子已经威胁到其生命之时还甘当“拳击靶子”的警察,就算他是当年的“拳王泰森”又如何?就算他穿着“防弹背心”、扛着机关枪又如何?还不是同样要被人打的“满地找牙”?还谈何将警用装备形成战斗力?

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  只有由“慎用”真正达到“善用”,才标志公安机关在处置群体性事件对作为国家公权力的警察权认识的理智与清醒;保证事件性质转变后,断然措施也随之而出,充分发挥警用装备的威慑和打击作用,使“依法果断处置”真正落到实处。

  综上所述,没有创新的警务实战理论和方法,再先进的警用装备也难以在与人的优化组合中发挥应有的战斗效能。警务实战理论的创新与守旧,是决定警用装备的更佳效能能否得到充分发挥的关键所在。只有创新警务实战理论,才能发挥警用装备的潜能,牵引警用装备形成战斗力。因此,创新实战理论是警用装备形成战斗力的灵魂。

  二、调制体制编制,为警用装备形成战斗力提供组织保证

  这里的体制编制主要是指组织系统、人员装备编配规定、机构设置、管理权限划分等制度。其作用是将一定的人与警用装备,按照设定的比例、顺序和层次进行有机组合,为人和警用装备的结合提供组织保证。警用装备品种的不同、战斗效能的差异、使用数量的多少、列装时间的先后,都在一定程度上支配着公安机关体制编制有序发展。只有通过科学的编排组合,把人与新式装备有机地融为一体,才能做到人尽其能,物尽其用,更大限度地形成和提高战斗力;相反,就会影响到实战部门整体功能的发挥,甚至使行动警力的战斗力受到削弱。

  建立和完善适应警用装备实战特点的编制体制,主要包括:确定警用装备的基本行动单位及其指挥、协同、训练和管理体制;确定警用装备的维修保障体制和物资器材供应体制;根据警用装备的技术特点和人力需求,确定警用装备的人员编制。

  只有适时调整编制体制,才能保证警用装备形成战斗力。警用装备对编制体制调整的需求,具有客观性和强制性,是不以人的意志为转移的。例如:省级公安机关的特警总队,既要担负群体性事件处置、大型安全保卫、巡逻设卡,又要打击严重暴力犯罪和恐怖袭击等,不但混淆了两类不同性质矛盾的处置,更是使警用装备保障和训练难以落到实处。为适应反恐形势需要,重庆市公安局在全国率先成立了反恐总队,其反恐突击队更是依据担负职能和装备保障,设立了突击、蛙人、排障爆破、支援保障等实战职能部门,从而在编制体制领先全国,极大地增强了反恐和打击严重暴力犯罪的职能。

  凡是能够自觉适应警用装备发展和性能,适时进行体制编制调整的警队,就能在处置行动中抢占先机之利。反之,就会导致体制编制的调整落后于警用装备的发展,进而制约警用装备在处置行动上发挥作用。例如:在处置群体性事件中,由于现行体制编制落后形势和装备,公安机关在现场处置中,往往采取大规模着装警力手持警棍盾牌与闹事人群直接对峙的处置方式,使警棍等警用装备的作用无法发挥,使激进挑衅行为、打、砸、抢、烧、杀行为得不到及时制止和打击,最终导致国家和人民的生命财产遭受重大损失。如果采用小分队武装巡逻、设立便衣队和突击抓捕分队,则可抢占先机之利、事半功倍,有效平息现场事态,控制局势。

  在实战训练方面,同样存在体制编制制约警用装备战斗力的形成。例如公安院校的警体和射击教研室,以早操和课余时间的体能锻炼、枪支射击(主要是致命性武器的使用)为主。由于编制职能原因,使大量的警械及器材装备无人训练,严重制约了警用装备战斗力的形成。为此,必须对公安院校的教学训练体制编制进行调整。例如,设立防控技能教研室、警用装备使用教研室取代警体教研室和射击教研室,以保证警用装备使用训练落单实处,促进警用装备战斗力的形成。

  在创新的执法实战理论指导下,高度重视体制编制对警用装备的反作用,从装备实际和实战需要出发,积极主动地调整公安机关的体制编制,是推进公安队伍现代化建设的一条基本原则,是人与装备有机结合的组织保证,是保证警用装备尽快形成战斗力的基本要求。

  三、深化教育训练,促进警用装备战斗力的形成

  教育训练是人和警用装备完美结合的桥梁,是警用装备形成战斗力的主要途径和关键环节,只有通过教育训练,人与装备才能相互融合。

  警用装备形成战斗力,需要一个人与装备相互磨合的教育训练过程。警用装备是新知识、新技术的产物。随着警用装备技术含量越来越高,掌握、操作和使用警用装备的要求也不断提高,指挥、调动、使用警用装备的难度也愈来愈大。只有通过正规有效的教育训练,民警才能熟知手中警用装备的战斗性能、构造和操作规则,熟练掌握警用装备的实战技能,才能充分发挥警用装备的应有效能。要科学组训,确保装备与人的有机融合。由于全警存在着警用武器教育训练思想陈旧、针对性不强、长期在低水平上徘徊的现象;又由于近年来警察战术训练取得突破性进展,警用装备的训法研究落后于战法研究,直接导致警用装备形成战斗力缺乏有效的指导,严重制约了警用装备战斗力的形成。为此,必须深化警用装备教育训练改革,确立理论先行、战法先行、训法先行的观念,以实战需求为牵引,结合民警执法实践,针对严重暴力犯罪新特点,更新和确立适应民警执法实战需要的警用装备训练内容体系,促进警用装备形成战斗力,从而增强公安机关的整体战斗力。

  (一)以实战为牵引,警用装备训练战术化,以研练战法促进警用装备训练

  警用装备形成战斗力是一个严格的实践过程,必须着眼实战,设置复杂的实战背景,以实战任务为牵引,认真研究警用装备的实战运用方法,以激发民警对警用装备全系统训练的热情。

  要用实战需要引导警用装备形成战斗力建设,带着任务演练,瞄准实战建设,集中力量研究解决警用装备遂行对抗性执法任务突出存在的重点难点问题,突出实战,注重实际,讲究实用,追求实效。

  (ER)YINDIZHIYI,XINJIUZHUANGBEIJIEHEXUNLIAN,DUOZHONGZHUANGBEIXITONGZHANDOULIDEZONGHEJICHENG

  由于各地警用装备均系地方财政开支,我国幅员辽阔,东西部发展不平衡,导致各地警用装备参差不齐。在今后一个时期内,警用装备新旧装备并存、“数代同堂”仍是各地公安机关当前和今后一段时间的装备现状。因此,警用装备要以新旧装备结合训练为内容,做好多种装备武器系统战斗力的综合集成。

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  (五)加强警用装备模拟训练,提高形成战斗力的效益

  MONIXUNLIANCHONGFENYUNYONGLEXIANDAIKEJICHENGGUO,BAJISUANJIJISHU、RENGONGZHINENGJISHU、ZHUANJIAXITONGJISHU、CHUANGANQIJISHU、TONGXINJISHUYIJIQITAJISHUTONGSHIZHANLILUNJIEHE,TONGGUOGAOJISHUSHOUDUANMONIDUIZHUANGBEIDECAOZUOHEZHANSHUCHUZHIXINGDONG,SHISHOUXUNZHEZAIJINSISHIZHANDEXUNLIANZHONGHUODESHIZHANZHISHIYUJINGYAN,TIGAOMINJINGDESHIZHANNENGLIHEZHIHUIYUANDEZHIHUIJUECENENGLI。MONIXUNLIANANQIJISHUFUZACHENGDUKEFENWEIYIBANJISHUQICAIMONIXUNLIAN、GUOCHENGFANGZHENMONIXUNLIAN、XUNIXIANSHIMONIXUNLIANHEFENBUSHIMONIXUNLIAN。

  对警用装备采用模拟训练不仅可以减少对警用装备的磨损,而且更重要的是可以减少人力、物力和财力的投入,从而提高装备形成战斗力的效益。

  四、强化管理保障是武器装备形成战斗力的重要保证

  (一)强化警用装备的整体规划和全寿命、全系统和全过程管理

  武器装备建设涉及论证、研究、设计,试制、生产、使用、维修直至退役的全过程,是一项复杂的系统工程。我国警用9mm转轮手枪装备后,受到了社会的强烈抨击。装备西方丢弃的低技术含量和性能落后的转轮手枪,标志中国警察独立研制武器迈出的第一步出现了方向性偏差。警用9mm转轮手枪的装备失误提醒我们:警用武器装备形成战斗力必须探索建立适应其建设客观规律的管理方法,即装备全系统、全寿命管理方法。装备全系统管理,强调既要着眼于单元警用装备的协调配套,又要重视各种装备在整个装备体系中的地位与作用,强调顶层设计和系统集成;装备全寿命管理,强调从装备建设总体目标和全寿命期考虑问题,科学划分全寿命的各阶段并确定各阶段的管理目标,实现有限装备建设资源在全寿命期的优化配置。

  实现警用装备的全系统和全寿命管理,必须提高对全寿命管理的认识,建立健全有关法律法规制度,大力加强装备管理人才建设,切实抓好武器装备科学化、制度化、经常化管理。

  (二)强化警用装备的科学化民主化、科学化决策

  警用武器装备建设必须坚持集中统一领导,加强科学化民主化、科学化决策。警用装备建设事关国家安危和社会稳定,其大政方针、资源分配和重大计划必须由国家统一领导。

  JINGYONGWUQIZHUANGBEIJIANSHEDEFAZHANFANGXIANG、MUBIAO、ZHONGDIAN,YIJIZHONGDAWUQIZHUANGBEIJIANSHEDEJUECE,SHEJIMIANGUANG,MIANLINDEMAODUNCUOZONGFUZA。YINCI,BIXUTIGAOJUECEDEKEXUEHUAMINZHUHUASHUIPING。WEISHAOZOUWANLU,BIMIANSHIWU,ZAIJUECEZHONGYAOZHUZHONGYANGEJUECECHENGXU,WANSHANJUECEZHIDU,ZHUYIFAHUIJUECEZIXUNJIGOUDEZUOYONG,YOUQIYAOSHIFENZHUZHONGGEFANGMIANZHUANJIADEYIJIAN,SHANYUJIZHONGQUNTIDEZHIHUI,NULITIGAOJUECEDEMINZHUHUAKEXUEHUASHUIPING。

  (SAN)LISHUNGONGANJIGUANDEGONGWUYONGQIANGGUANLISHIYONGGUIDING

  GONGANJIGUANDEGONGWUYONGQIANGSHIDAJIFANZUI、WEIHUSHEHUIZHIANDEGONGJU。PEIBEIGONGWUYONGQIANGSHIFALVFUYUMINJINGDEQUANLI。YIFASHIYONGQIANGZHISHIFALVFUYUMINJINGDEZHIZE。DANSHI,GEDIGONGANJIGUANZAIGONGWUYONGQIANGDEGUANLISHANGDOUBUTONGCHENGDUDICUNZAIYIXIEWENTI,YANZHONGFANGAIWUQIZHUANGBEIZHANDOULIDEXINGCHENG。WANSHANWOGUOMUQIANDEGONGANJIGUANGONGWUYONGQIANGGUANLISHIYONGZHIDU。YOULIYURENYUWUQIDEYOUJIJIEHE,MANZUGONGANJIGUANSHIZHANXUYAO,BAOHURENMINQUNZHONGHEMINJINGDESHENGMINGANQUAN。

  1. ZHENGQUECHULIGUANLIHESHIYONGZHIJIANDEGUANXI,CHONGFENFAHUIGONGANJIGUANDEZHINENGZUOYONGGONGANJIGUANDEGONGWUYONGQIANG,SHIGONGANJIGUANWEIHUSHEHUIZHIANZHIXU、BAOZHANGGONGGONGANQUAN、DAJIFANZUIDEYOULIBAOZHANG。YAOZHENZUODAOYIFAPEIQIANG,HEFAYONGQIANG,YANGEGUANLI。

  YIZHAO《GONGANJIGUANGONGWUYONGQIANGPEIBEIBANFA》JIMINJINGPEIBEIGONGWUYONGQIANGSHIDANWEIHELINGDAODEFADINGZHIZE。YIFAPEIBEIHESHIYONGGONGWUYONGQIANGSHIFALVFUYUMINJINGDEQUANLI,RENHERENDOUWUQUANSUIYIBODUO。BUNENGYINWEIGEBIEMINJINGWEIFASHIYONGQIANGZHI,PAZHUIJIUZIJIDELINGDAOZEREN,JIUYINYEFEISHIBUANGUIDINGJIYIXIANMINJINGPEIBEIGONGWUYONGQIANGHUOBUANGUIDINGJISHIPIZHUNMINJINGJIELINGGONGWUYONGQIANG。YAOZHENGQUELIJIEGONGWUYONGQIANGGUANLIHESHIYONGZHIJIANDEBIANZHENGTONGYIGUANXI。YANGEGUANLISHIWEILEBAOZHENGHEFASHIYONG,YIFASHIYONGGONGWUYONGQIANGBIXUJIANLIZAIYANGEDEGUANLIHEJIANDUZHISHANG,QIEJIWEIZHUIQIUSUOWEIDE“ANQUAN”ERJIXIEDIJIANGGONGWUYONGQIANGQUANBUHUODABUFENJIZHONGFENGCUNBAOGUAN。

  2. WANSHANGONGANJIGUANGONGWUYONGQIANGGUANLIHESHIYONGDEXIANGGUANLIFA

  JIANYU《TIAOLI》YOUGUANSHIYONGQIANGZHIDEGUIDINGBUJINWANSHAN,YINGJINYIBUXIHUAMINJINGSHIYONGQIANGZHIDEJUTICHENGXU、TIAOJIANHEQINGXING。MINGQUEGUIDINGMINJINGZAIZHIXINGGONGWUSHIKEYIPEIDAIQIANGZHI、CHUQIANG、JINGGAO、BUJINGSHIJINGXIANXINGKAIQIANGSHEJIDETIAOJIAN,YIJIKAIQIANGHOUDESHANHOUCHULI、FALVZERENZHUIJIUGUIDINGDENGDENG。YAOTONGGUOLIFAMINGQUEGUIDING:YIFASHIYONGWUQIBUSHOURENHEXINGSHIDEZHUIJIU,WEIFASHIYONGHUOZHEBULVXINGKAIQIANGZHIZEZAOCHENGHOUGUODECAISHOUDAOZHUIJIU。LIFASHANGYINGMINGQUESHOUQUANMINJINGZAITEBIEJINJIDEQINGKUANGXIAYOU“XIANFAZHIDI”DEQUANLI。

  ZAILIFAZHONGYINGJINLIANGJIANSHAOYIKAOMINJINGLINCHANGDE“ZHUNQUE”PANDUANQUEDINGSHIFOUKAIQIANGDEGUIDING,JINLIANGHUIBI“PANMING”DENGKEKEDEYONGYU,JINLIANGGUIDINGJIANMINGEYAO、CAOZUOXINGQIANGDEJUTIXINGWEIHECHENGXU。LIRU,ZHIYAOXINGWEIRENYOUNENGLI、YOUJIHUIZAOCHENGSHANGHAI,MINJINGHUOTARENCHUYUSHIJIWEIXIANZHIZHONG,ZHIYAOXINGWEIRENJUJUEFANGXIAWUQIHUOZHEQITAXIONGQI,WULUNQIXINGWEISHIFOUDUIMINJINGHUOTARENJINXINGLEZHIJIEGONGJI,MINJINGDOUYOUQUANZIYOUCAILIANGSHIFOUKAIQIANG,KAIQIANGHOUMINJINGGERENYEBUYINGCHENGDANRENHEZEREN。ZHIYOUJINYIBUWANSHANQIANGZHIGUANLISHIYONGDEXIANGGUANFALVFAGUI,CAINENGCHONGFENFAHUIWUQIDAJIHEWEISHEFANZUIDEZUOYONG,CAINENGSHIMINJINGZAISHIYONGQIANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGZUODAOYOUFAKEYI,YOUZHANGKEXUN,BIMIANFANCUOWUHEBAOZHENGZISHENANQUAN。

  3. JIANLIJIYOULIYUQIANGZHIANQUANYOUYOULIYUSHIZHANSHIYONGDEGONGANJIGUANGONGWUYONGQIANGGUANLIZHIDU

  ZHENDUI《GONGANJIGUANGONGWUYONGQIANGGUANLISHIYONGGUIDING》ZAISHIZHANZHONGBAOLUCHULAIDEWENTI,YINGZAIGEBIEJUBEITIAOJIANDECHENGQUJICENGYIXIANDANWEIJIANLIQIANGDANGUANLIZHONGXINKU。DUIQIANGZHISHIXINGSHUGEJIUJINDEJICENGDANWEILIANDONGDEXIANGDUIJIZHONGDEGUANLI;GENJURENYUANBIANZHI、BANGONGTIAOJIANDENGYINGXINGZHIBIAO,ZAINONGCUNHUOPIANYUANDIQUGONGANJICENGDANWEIANBILIJIANGQIANGZHIPEIFAJIFUHEPEIQIANGTIAOJIANDEGERENBAOGUAN;DUIJIBUNENGJIANZHONGXINKU,YOUBUSHIYUJIANGQIANGZHIJIAOGERENBAOGUANDEJICENGDANWEI,KEZAIJIZHONGBAOGUANDETONGSHI,ANBILIPEIBEIYIDINGSHULIANGDEZHIBANYONGQIANG。ZHIBANYONGQIANGBIXUSHANGSHIDAN,XUTONGSHIPEIBEIQIANGTAO、QIANGGANG、QIANGSUODENGANQUANZHUANGZHI,SHIXINGQIANGBULISHEN,ZAIZHIBANLINGDAOHUOBEIQINMINJINGZHIJIANXIANGHUJIAOJIEDEGUANLIZHIDU。XIANGGUANLINGDAO、ZHUGUANBUMENHEJIANDUBUMENYAOZHONGDIANJIAQIANGDUIGERENBAOGUANHEZHIBANYONGQIANGZHIJINXINGJINGCHANGXINGJIANDUJIANCHA,TEBIESHIYAOSUISHIZHANGWOCHIQIANGMINJINGDEGONGZUO、SHENGHUOZUOFENGHESIXIANGDONGTAI。CHUXIANBULIANGMIAOTOU,YAOJISHICAIQUCUOSHI,FANGHUANYUWEIRAN。

  4. JIANLIKEXUEWANSHANDEZERENZHUIJIUZHIDU

  DUIFASHENGSHEQIANGWEIFAWEIJIDEMINJING,YINGGENJUJUTIQINGXINGHEZAOCHENGDEWEIHAIHOUGUOSHISHIXIANGGUANZERENZHUIJIU,DANBUNENGDUISHEQIANGWEIFAWEIJIDEMINJING“YIGUNZIDASI”,YIMIANQITAMINJINGXINCUNYUJI,ZAOCHENGMINJINGJUPAXIEDAI、SHIYONGQIANGZHI。TONGSHI,ZAIZHUIJIUYOUGUANLINGDAOZERENSHANG,JIYAOBIMIANTUOLISHIJI,GAOJIANDANDEZERENZHULIAN,YOUYAODUIYINGUANLICUOSHIBUDANG,ZHISHIMINJINGZAIZHIXINGGONGWUSHI,YINWUQIANGZHIERFASHENGMINJINGSHANGWANGDEFUYOULINGDAOZERENDERENDEZEREN。ZAI《XINGZHENGCHUFENRUOGANGUIDING》DISHIYITIAOZHONGJINYIBUXIHUAXIANGGUANZERENZHUIJIUQINGXINGHECHENGXU,SHIQIGENGJUYOUKECAOZUOXING。

  总之,警用装备能否形成战斗力,不仅仅在于其性能的先进性,在很大程度上还取决于科学的管理。警用装备作为构成公安机关战斗力的物质基础,其管理水平的高低、质量的好坏,平时影响到训练和执法执勤等任务的完成,战时则关系到民警的生死存亡和行动任务的完成。只有实施科学管理,才能提高武器装备形成战斗力的效益。

  五、体系建设是警用装备形成战斗力的物质基础

  所谓警用装备体系,是指按照既定的公安战略方针和警务模式,根据警用装备发展的客观规律,综合考虑实战需求和技术推动两方面因素所确定的各类警用装备的组合方式及其规模构成。它是在警用装备体系中,各类装备系统之间和装备系统内部互联互动、整体合成的一个密切关联的有机系统。

  警用装备形成战斗力,已不再是简单的单个装备、单个作战单元形成战斗力,而是多种装备战斗力的综合集成。

  (一)优化警用装备总体结构,确保装备形成整体战斗力

  优化警用装备总体结构,是指通过强化顶层研究,统筹考虑警用装备的改进、引进和发展,将各类警用装备科学合理地编配于公安机关各系统和各层次上,将局部各层次的优化逐步发展为整体优化。优化总体结构的程序是:首先,根据实战需要,提出应由警用装备担负的实战任务需求;其次,根据不同的任务要求,确定装备结构体系划分(如数量规模、组合方式等),提出具体的装备发展需求;然后,按照效能更佳原则,论证确定新发展装备的主要质量指标,根据可提供的装备质量情况,组合不同的数量,形成采购计划。优化总体结构应遵循以下四条原则:

  1.JINMIJIEHEJINGWUSHIZHANDEXUQIU

  警用装备发展一直都遵循需求牵引和技术推动的双向作用原则。紧密结合未来警务实战需求,就是根据超前实战理论提出的能力需求,从整体上规划警用装备的发展,合理设置装备品种、性能和型号。也就是执法执勤需要什么装备,就发展什么装备。不是实战需求的装备,就不能纳入装备体系。例如:现装备警刀附件的鱼丝、弹弓,就不符合装备总体结构优化的要求。

  优化装备总体结构首先是紧密结合实战需求。适应未来警务实战需求发展警用装备,不能着眼于个体行动的需求,而应该受未来警务实战整体作战能力综合需求的牵引。

  2.KEXUEPEIZHI,XIEDIAOFAZHAN

  KEXUEPEIZHI,XIEDIAOFAZHAN,JIUSHICONGXINGCHENGZHENGTIZHANDOULIDEJIAODU,CONGHENGXIANGSHANGKEXUEANPAIGEZHONGZHUANGBEIDEBILIGUANXI,SHIQIXIEDIAOFAZHAN。ZHUYAOYINGCHULIHAOYIXIAGUANXI:

  YISHI“ZHUZHANZHUANGBEI”YU“BAOZHANGZHUANGBEI”DEGUANXI。JINGWUSHIZHANDEYIGEZHONGYAOTEZHENG,JIUSHIYAOQIUWEIZHUZHANZHUANGBEITIGONGGENGDUO、GENGKEKAODEQINGBAOZHIYUANHEHOUQINZHIYUAN,BINGCHULIHAO“ZHUZHANZHUANGBEI”YU“BAOZHANGZHUANGBEI”DEBILIGUANXI,CONGERBAOZHANGQICHONGFENFAHUIXIAONENG。

  LIRU:XIANYOUDANJINGCUILEIPENSHEQISHIFENSHOUHUANYING,DANYOUYUMEIYOUJIAOLIANYONGDANJINGCUILEIPENSHEQIKEGONGXUNLIAN,ZHISHISHIZHANZHONGPENBUZHUNDEXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG;YOUYUDANJINGCUILEIPENSHEQIPINZHONGDANYI,WUDAGUANZHUANGDECUILEIPENSHEQI,ZHISHIMINJINGZAICHUZHIQUNTIXINGSHIJIANZHONGWUFAKANGJISAOLUANRENQUNDELIANXUCHONGJI。

  ERSHI“PINGTAI”YU“FUZAI”DEGUANXI。XIANDAIJINGYONGJISHUZHUANGBEITONGYIZHONGPINGTAI,JIASHANGXIANJINDEHUOKONGXITONGHEDIANZISHEBEI,JIUKEYISHIWUQIZHUANGBEIDEXINGNENGSHANGYIGEDANGCI。JUTISHUO,ZAIWUQIZHUANGBEIDE“ZAITI”YU“ZAIHE”DEGUANXISHANG,YOUSHIBUYONGGAIJIN“ZAITI”,ZHIZHONGDIANDUIMOUJIXIANG“ZAIHE”JINXINGGAIJIN,JIUKEYIDADAOTIGAOXINGNENGDEMUDE。

  RUDUIJINGYONGWUQISHANGJIAZHUANGPIKATINGDAOGUI,KEYIANZHUANGDUOZHONGFUZHUSHEBEI,TIGAOWUQIGONGNENG。

  三是“自研”与“引进”的关系。现代警用装备技术日趋复杂,费用日益昂贵而发展却极为迅速。装备落后的国家想通过自己的技术发展赶上世界先进技术水平,已越来越困难。为此,为满足自身的迫切需求,应当加强与发达国家的警用技术引进和国际合作。即使是发达国家间也希望通过技术引进和合作,缩短装备研制周期,优势互补,降低各自的风险与负担。在这里,处理好“引进”与“自研”的比例关系是关键。自研的比例过高,过分强调自力更生,会增加装备研制的难度和时间,难以满足现实的需要;我国警用装备相对落后,与过分强调自研不无关系。相反,引进的比例过高,不仅威胁自身装备工业的生存,而且难以形成持续可靠的战斗力,容易受制于人。例如我国香港的警用装备,过分依赖进口,价格昂贵;香港警察因历史原因偏爱转轮手枪,但因国外抛弃转轮手枪,配件中断,香港警察无奈也将抛弃转轮手枪。因此,在优化装备总体结构时,要科学确定“引进”与“自研”装备的比例。

  SISHI“YANXIN”YU“GAIXIAN”DEGUANXI。YANXINSHIZHIYANZHIXINZHUANGBEI;GAIXIANSHIZHITONGGUOCHENGSHUJISHUGAIJINXIANYOUWUQIZHUANGBEI,NENGYIJIAOSHAODEJINGFEI、JIAODUANDESHIJIAN,SHIXIANYOUWUQIZHUANGBEIDEZUOZHANXIAONENGYOUJIAODADETIGAO。

  YIBANGAIZAODEZHUYAODUIXIANGSHIZUOZHANPINGTAI,QIZHUYAOMUBIAOSHITIGAOZUOZHANNENGLI,KUOZHANGAIBIANZUOZHANGONGNENGHEYANZHANGSHIYONGSHOUMING。

  例如:国内警用装备部门由于没有处理好“军用”和“警用”枪械的关系,不明白“军用”和“警用”的区别是在弹上而不是在枪上,为了发射世界更受争议的“橡皮弹”,花费7年时间去研制一支世界落后的转轮手枪,导致内地警察警用手枪装备倒退至世界落后水平。

  ZAIQUELIZHUANGBEIZONGTIJIEGOUSHI,“GAIXIAN”YU“YANXIN”BIXUBAOCHIKEXUEDEBILI,“GAIXIAN”DEBILIGUOGAO,JIUWUFASHIXIANWUQIZHUANGBEIJISHUKUADAIFAZHAN,ER“YANXIN”DEBILIGUOGAO,BUJINJINGJISHILINANYIZHICHENG,ERQIEYESHIYIZHONGLANGFEI。

  ZONGZHI,YOUHUAZHUANGBEIZONGTIJIEGOUYAOCHULIHAO“ZHUZHANZHUANGBEI”YUBAOZHANGZHUANGBEI”、“PINGTAI”YU“FUZAI’’、“ZIYAN”YU“YINJIN”YIJIYANXIN”YU“GAIXIAN”DENGGUANXI,HELIQUEDINGGEZHONGZHUANGBEIBILI,QUDEGENGJIADEWUQIZHUANGBEIJIANSHEXIAOFEIBI。

  3. GONGNENGPEITAO,XINGNENGPIPEI

  功能配套,性能匹配,也就是从完成一定作战任务的角度,从纵向上将类别、用途相同,但规格、性能不同的警用装备配置成一个功能完好、结构完整的整体。警用装备总体结构只有功能配套、性能匹配,才能保证警务活动高效完成。

  LIRU:XIANZHUANGBEIDE9mmJINGYONGZHUANLUNSHOUQIANGXIANGPIDAN,FEIDANBUNENGMIBUZHUANLUNSHOUQIANGSHASHANGWEILIXIAODEBIBING,FANERSHIJINGYONGZHUANLUNSHOUQIANGGENGQUYUWUYONGQIEZANGSONGMINJINGQIANTU。YAOSHIPEIYONGZHUANLUNSHOUQIANGKONGJIANDAN,ZEKESHIGONGNENGPEITAO,MIBUQIXINGNENGDEBUZU。SUOYI,YOUHUAZHUANGBEIZONGTIJIEGOUBIXUYAOZUODAOWUQIZHUANGBEIDEGONGNENGPEITAOHEXINGNENGPIPEI。

  4.BIAOZHUNHUA、TONGYONGHUA、MOKUAIHUA

  BIAOZHUNHUAJIUSHIZHIZAIWUQIZHUANGBEICHUANGXINZHONGGUANCHEZHIXINGGONGTONGDEBIAOZHUN,YICILAITONGYIXINGDONG、TONGYIFANGFA;TONGYONGHUASHIZHITONGYILEIWUQIXITONGTONGGUOJUBUGAIDONGHUOGENGHUANBUFENMOKUAI,ZUHECHENGLINGHUOJIDONGDEZHUANGBEIXILIE,SHIYINGBUTONGZUOZHANXUQIU;MOKUAIHUASHITONGGUOGENGHUAN

  JUYOUBUTONGGONGNENGDEMOKUAI,SHIXIANWUQIZHUANGBEIBUTONGDEGONGNENG,HUOZHESUIZHEJISHUDEFAZHAN,TONGGUOGENGHUANYUNYONGXINJISHUDEMOKUAILAITIGAOWUQIZHUANGBEIDEXINGNENG(BIAOZHUNHUA、TONGYONGHUAHEMOKUAIHUAYIXIAJIANCHENG“SANHUA”)。ZAISHIJIEGEGUOZHUANGBEITIXIJIANSHEZHONG,TONGGUO“SANHUA”JIANSHEDADAOBEIPINPEIJIANTONGYONGHUA、YANZHISHENGCHANJIZHONGHUA、CHANPINGUIGEBIAOZHUNHUA、ZHUANGTAIJIANCEYITIHUA、JISHURENYUANWEIXIUDANYIHUA、CAOZUORENYUANKEHUANHUA,DUIJIANHUAJISHUBAOZHANGCHENGXU,JIANSHAOPEIJIANXINGHAO,JIANSHAOBAOZHANGJIGOURENYUAN,JIANGDIBAOZHANGCHENGBENHEWEIXIUNANDU,YOUXIAOTIGAOBAOZHANGNENGLI,JUNJUYOUSHIFENZHONGYAODEYIYI。“SANHUA”SHEJIDAIBIAOZHEDANGJINSHIJIEJUNSHIQIANGGUOZAIYOUHUAZHUANGBEIZONGTIJIEGOUSHI

  GONGTONGDEYIZHONGJUNSHISIXIANG,QIYOUYUEXINGSHIXIANERYIJIANDE。

  SHOUXIAN,“SANHUA”JIANSHEYOULIYUTIGAOWUQIZHUANGBEISHENGCHANDEXIAOFEIBI。QICI,“SANHUA”JIANSHEYOULIYUSUODUANYANZHIZHOUQIHEYANZHANGWUQIZHUANGBEIDEYOUXIAOSHOUMING。ZAICI,“SANHUA”JIANSHEYOULIYUMANZUWEILAISHIZHANDEXUQIU,YOUZHUYUXINXIHULIAN,WUQIZHUANGBEIXIANGHUJIANRONG,YOUZHUYUTIGAOZHUJINGZHONGDELIANHEZUOZHANNENGLI。LINGWAI,WUQIZHUANGBEIDE“SANHUA”HAIKEYIJIANHUACAOZUOSHIYONGYUHOUQINBAOZHANG,SUODUANWEIHUHEXIUFUSHIJIAN,CONGERDADATIGAOZONGTIZUOZHANNENGLI。

  “QIANGZU”DEGAINIANSHIWUQIZHUANGBEIBIAOZHUNHUA、TONGYONGHUA、MOKUAIHUADEDIANFAN;ERWOGUONEIDIGONGANJIGUANZHUANGBEIBUMENFENGXINGDE“JINGCHABUNENGYONGJUNYONGQIANG”、“SHENMEJINGZHONGYONGSHENMEQIANG”DEGUANNIAN,ZEYOUWEIWUQIZHUANGBEIDEBIAOZHUNHUA、TONGYONGHUA、MOKUAIHUA。RUQIANSUOSHU,QIANGZHIZUOWEIYIZHONGFASHEQI,SHIWUSUOWEI“JUNYONG”“JINGYONG”DE,“JUNYONG”“JINGYONG”DEQUBIESHIZAIDANSHANGERBUSHIZAIQIANGSHANG。CUOWUDEZHIDAOBIRANCHANSHENGCUOWUDEJIEGUO,ZAI“SHENMEJINGZHONGYONGSHENMEQIANG”DECUOWUYINDAOXIA,YUSHICUISHENGLEWEIFANWUQIZHUANGBEIBIAOZHUNHUA、TONGYONGHUA、MOKUAIHUAGUILV、LUOHOUSHIDAIDEZHUANLUNSHOUQIANG,SHINEIDIGONGANMINJINGZAIDUIKANGXINGZHIFAZHONGDESHIZHANNENGLIDADAZHEKOU。

  ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,ZAIYOUHUAZHUANGBEIZONGTIJIEGOUSHI,YAOZHONGSHIGUANCHE“SANHUA”YUANZE。YIFANGMIAN,YINGJINYIBUJIANSHAOXINGHAO,TIGAOTONGYONGHUASHUIPING,JINLIANGFAZHANTONGYONGZHUANGBEI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,YINGDALIANGCAIYONGTONGYONGBUJIANHEMOKUAIHUASHEJI,WEIXUNLIANHESHIZHANWEIXIUTIGONGFANGBIAN,DADAJIANGDIBAOZHANGDEGONGZUOLIANGJINANDU。

  (ER)ZHONGSHIJISHURONGHE,QUEBAOZHUANGBEIZHANDOULIDEZONGHEJICHENG

  MUQIAN,JUNJINGZHUANGBEIJISHUFAZHANDETUCHUTEDIANSHIJISHURONGHE,YECHENG“ZONGHEJICHENG”。JUTIBIAOXIANWEI:BUTONGZHUANGBEIJISHUZHIJIANDEJIAOCHASHENTOU,TUPOYUANYOUDEJISHUJIEXIAN,CONGERCHANSHENGXINDEZHUANGBEIJISHU;TONGYIZHUANGBEIJISHUNEIBUDEBUTONGLINGYUZHIJIANXIANGHURONGHE;XIANDAIGAOJISHUYUCHUANTONGJISHUXIANGHURONGHE。YOUYUGEXIANGZHUANGBEIJISHUFAZHANSUDUBUTONG,ZHEIZHONGYIHUBUHEHEZUOWEIMUDEDEJISHURONGHE,CHENGXIANCHUMINGXIANDEFEIXIANXING。

  多种警用装备技术的融合,必然带来多种装备的综合集成,其结果是构建一体化警用装备体系。一体化,是指警用装备体系并非各类装备子系统的松散组合,而是其结构与功能的一体化。功能一体化,即将过去须由几件单独装备遂行的作战职能,合成为一个装备系统来完成。结构一体化,即通过各级公安指挥中心系统(指挥自动化系统),把整个处置行动中各警种的技术装备、操作平台、保障装备联为一体,使所有装备部门和行动警力紧密配合、协调行动。结构与功能的一体化,使警用装备体系具有极大的粘合强度和聚合能力,即做到“无缝”连接。以一体化的公安指挥中心系统为例,就是将侦查、监视、指挥、控制、通信、情报和计算机联为一体,构成信息化警用装备体系的“神经中枢。例如:发生在2010年8月9日的广西防城港市公安边防支队防城大队执勤人员打死冲卡逃逸案,反映出其一体化警用装备体系水平较差。

  与警用装备发展的这一特点相适应,警用装备体系建设应在优化装备总体结构的基础上,推进警用装备技术融合,确保多种装备战斗力的综合集成。

  YIFANGMIAN,YINGLIYONG“HENGXIANGJISHUYITIHUA”FANGFA,DUIXIANYOUZHUANGBEIJINXINGXINXIHUAGAIZHUANGHEGAIZAO。ZHUANGBEI“ZONGHEJICHENG”DEJICHU,SHIWUQIZHUANGBEIJIANSHIYONGYIZHIDEJISHUTIZHIHEBIAOZHUN。ZHEIJIUXUYAOTONGGUO“HENGXIANGJISHUYITIHUA”DEFANGFA,JILIYONGXIANYOUJISHU,GONGTONGDERUANJIAN、BIAOZHUNHEGUICHENG,CONGHENGXIANGSHANGDUIXIANYOUWUQIXITONGJINXINGXIANDAIHUAGAIZHUANGHUOGAIJIN,SHIQIJUYOUGENGHAODETONGYONGXING,JIAQIANGGEXITONGZHIJIANDEXINXIJIAOLIUYUKONGZHI,SHIWUQIZHUANGBEITIXIJUYOUGENGQIANGDEZHANHELI,ZHEIYANGCAINENGDADAOZHANDOULIDEGENGJIAJICHENG。

  另一方面,应着眼装备体系一体化能力的提高。在研制新项目以前,要充分论证该项目如何提高公安力量的一体化能力;要从系统的角度对成熟技术“综合集成",确定警务应用的有效性和作战系统的完整性。警用装备形成战斗力需要具备的五个主要条件的作用不是相互独立的,而是相互影响、相互作用。发挥新装备的作战效能,首先要创新实战理论,形成与现装备相适应的作战方式和方法;实战理论的创新必然带来体制编制的调整,为警用装备形成战斗力创造适宜的组织结构;验证新的实战理论和体制编制则需要深化对警用装备的教育训练,加速人与装备的有机融合;在教育训练中要不断完善装备的管理保障,确保装备形成持续可靠的战斗力;而要形成整体战斗力则需要重视警用装备体系的建设。围绕警用装备所进行的一系列实践活动的最终目标就是使其形成现实战斗力。只有形成了创新的实战理论和完善了体制编制,进行了符合实战的教育训练,形成了科学配套的管理保障运行机制以及科学合理的装备体系结构,警用装备的战斗力才会迅速提高,公安机关的整体实战能力才会得到大幅度提升。

  CANKAOWENXIAN:

  [1] ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGUOWUYUANLINGDI191HAOLIPENG:《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUORENMINJINGCHASHIYONGJINGXIEHEWUQITIAOLI》1996NIAN1YUE16RI

  [2] ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGONGANBU:《GONGANJIGUANGONGWUYONGQIANGGUANLISHIYONGGUIDING》

  [3] WEIGANG,CHENHAOGUANGZHUBIAN《WUQIZHUANGBEICAIBANZHIDUGAILUN》GUOFANGGONGYECHUBANSHE2008NIANBAN。

  [4] YANGSHISONGZHUBIAN:《XINBIANJUNDUIGUANLIXUE》JUNSHIKEXUECHUBANSHE2007NIANBAN。

  [5] SONGTAILIANGDENGZHUBIAN:《ZHUANGBEIZONGHEBAOZHANGSHISHIZHINAN》GUOFANGGONGYECHUBANSHE2004NIANBAN。

  [6] XUHEZHENZHUBIAN:《XINJUNSHIBIANGEYUXUNLIANCHUANGXIN》JUNSHIKEXUECHUBANSHE2003NIANBAN。

  [7] WUQUANXUZHUBIAN:《JUNSHIXUNLIANXUE》JUNSHIKEXUECHUBANSHE2003NIANBAN。

  [8] ZHONGJINGZHUBIAN:《WUQIZHUANGBEIXINGCHENGZHANDOULIYANJIU》GUOFANGDAXUECHUBANSHE2002NIANBAN

  [9] ZHANGZIQIU,WANGJIANPINGZHUBIAN《ZHUANGBEIJISHUBAOZHANGGAILUN》JUNSHIKEXUECHUBANSHE2001NIANBAN。

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  [11] YUGAODADENGZHU:《JUNSHIZHUANGBEIXUE》,GUOFANGDAXUECHUBANSHE2000NIANBAN。

  [12] ZHOUBISONGDENGZHU:《GAOJISHUFAZHANYUXINJUNSHIGEMING》,GUOFANGDAXUEXUNLIANBU1998NIANBAN。

  [13] LIUJIFENGZHU:《JUNSHIJISHULUN》,BINGQIGONGYECHUBANSHE1991NIANBAN。

  [14] GUOSHIZHENZHU:《JUNSHIJISHULUNGANGYAO》,JIEFANGJUNCHUBANSHE1990NIANBAN。

  [15] [MEI]DUPUYIZHU:《WUQIHEZHANZHENGDEYANBIAN》,JUNSHIKEXUECHUBANSHE1985NIANBAN。



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